Ecology of Mangroves
СНПЧ А7 Самара, обзоры принтеров и МФУ

Avicennia and Laguncularia typically form the bulk of the forest between the Rhizophora fringe and the high tide line. Both species can tolerate higher salinity levels and longer periods of drought. Avicennia propagules (seeds which sprout into seedlings while still attached to the parent tree) can be found in large numbers along the high tide line down-current from mature mangrove stands, and regeneration of these species has been observed from seed sources that are several miles away.

The mangrove forest of Guyana is a complex ecosystem because it represents an inter-phase between two contrasting types of communities: the terrestrial, as represented by shrubs, grasses and agricultural crops, and the marine as represented by sea grass. There is an abrupt transition from mangroves to marine communities, while transitions to terrestrial communities, such as fresh water swamps, are gradual in some places (Pastakia, 1991).

In addition to the mangrove trees, the inland edge of the mangrove zone is populated by a number of salt-tolerant, opportunistic species of ferns, vines, shrubs and trees that include Mangrove Fern, Black Sage, Monkey Apple, Sea Almond, thatch Screw Pine and a number of grasses and sedges which can collectively be referred to as a mangrove-associate community, which contributes to the diversity of the coastal zone biome and to the stability of the sea defences. More information on the role they play in the ecology of the whole coastal system is needed.

In some circumstances, significant wetlands, usually of fresh or slightly brackish water, can be found behind the sea wall. This inland plant community has been named the 'back mangal' by Tomlinson. It is likely to support black and white mangrove populations, and offers additional opportunities for mangrove reforestation, which, while making no significant contribution to the sea defences, adds considerable acreage to the potential overall mangrove forest.

The trophic structure or nutrient cycling and energy flows in mangrove ecosystems are quite complex. In simple terms, when mangrove plants receive sunlight for photosynthesis, they produce organic substances and grow. Parts of plants like branches, leaves and litter may fall on to water or soil, and are eventually decomposed by micro-organisms like bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and benthic fauna, or so-called detritus consumers, and converted into minerals and nutrients. In turn, micro-organisms themselves become a source of food for small aquatic animals, which are preyed upon by shrimps, crabs and larger fish at higher trophic levels. Some die and decay and become nutrients that accumulate in the mangrove soil. Finally, larger fauna and fish become food for larger animals and human beings, which are consumers at the highest level of food chains or energy flow in the ecosystem.




Our Vision

To augment Guyana's sea defence by protecting, restoring and managing the natural coastline barrier provided by our mangrove forests.

Contact Information

Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project
National Agricultural Research Institute
Agriculture Road, Mon Repos East Coast Demerara
Phone (592) 220-2843
Fax (592) 220-4481/220-2843
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.