Types of Mangroves
СНПЧ А7 Самара, обзоры принтеров и МФУ

The word 'Mangroves'' refers to a group of plants which may actually belong to several families (species that distinctly belong to their own evolutionary group). The term therefore indicates an ecological rather than a taxonomical (scientific classification) grouping - the species are not related. They are unique plants because of their ability to grow in unstable tough environments.

Mangroves are unique because they are able to thrive in areas where the water is poor in oxygen content, in salt water, in fresh water and in brackish water (a mixture of salt and fresh water). Mangroves are fast-growing trees taking several years to reach up to 25 meters when they are fully grown. Of the seven types of mangroves, three are most dominant, the red, black and white types.

Roots of the Black Mangrove


Leaf and Flower of the Black Mangrove

Black Mangroves or 'Courida'

(Avicennia germinans)


Easily identified by its roots which are specialized to take in oxygen. Roots look like tubular bristles which stick out vertically
and trap oxygen for its oxygen-starved root systems. These bristles are known as pneumatophores.

The Black Mangrove is tolerant of high saline conditions and the trees grow in isolated groups or woodland formations.
Individual trees are fairly large and may grow up to 20-25 meters in height and 40 centimetres in diameter at breast height.

Black mangroves produce seeds in abundance which occur throughout the year. The seeds are viviparous in nature, meaning
their seeds germinate while still being attached to the parent tree. This species regenerates and coppices well and can
therefore be managed under a coppice system, which is an even-agedsilvicultural system for which the main regeneration
method is vegetative sprouting of either suckers (from the existing root systems of cut trees) or shoots (from cut stumps).


The Black Mangrove is the most important and dominant mangrove species in the open mud flats of Guyana . The seeds
are actually edible and can be prepared into a delicious meal- but caution! Unless prepared in a certain way, your meal
can be toxic!


Red Mangrove or 'Red Mango'

( Rhizophora mangle )




Tree and root system of the Red Mangrove




This is an evergreen tree, which grows to about 25 meters in height
and 40 centimetres in diameter at breast height.

These are immediately recognized by their elaborate prop and aerial root system which stabilizes the trees. The roots
contain a waxy substance that helps keep salt out. Where salt gets through, salt is deposited in older leaves and the tree
then sheds them.




The seed-like parts - the propagules - are large pre-germinated 'seedlings' known locally as 'monkey whistles'. A single seed germinates inside the conical fruit forming a long narrow first root (radicle), which is green except for the brown enlarged and pointed end up to 1.25 centimetres in diameter. It can grow up to 30 centimetres in length before it detaches from the mother tree and falls. They need a longer period from 16 to 30 months to mature from flower bud to mature seedlings.

Red Mangroves does not respond well to cutting, and are very sensitive. If 50% or half the leaves are removed from the tree then it will die.


The wood can be converted into good quality charcoal and the bark produces high quality tannin which is suitable for leatherwork.

White Mangrove

( Laguncularia racemosa )


These are the shortest of the three species (reaches 5.6 meters and a diameter of 30 centimetres) and have un-buttressedroots. This species normally grows in the back portion of mangrove swamps, which remains unaffected by tidal inundation, except during spring tides. The bark is light brown to reddish dark brown, and the leaves are ovate. The leaves have adapted to their salty environment by developing special openings (glands) that allow salt to pass from inside the tree to the outside. The leaves
are then coated with speckled white salt crystals which are what gives this species its name- white mangrove.

Germination is epigeous (the cotyledons - part of the embryo of the seed- of the germinating seed expand, throw off the seedshell and become photosynthetic above the ground) and un-opened seeds are carried up to 4 - 8 centimetres on a slender green stalk. Further, the roots are fibrous, and this species coppices reasonably well. It normally grows in the back portionof mangrove swamps, which remains unaffected by tidal inundation, except during spring tides. The soil is generally clayey to
silty clay.


 Leaf and seed of the White Mangrove

Flowers of the White Mangrove

Our Vision

To augment Guyana's sea defence by protecting, restoring and managing the natural coastline barrier provided by our mangrove forests.

Contact Information

Guyana Mangrove Restoration Project
National Agricultural Research Institute
Agriculture Road, Mon Repos East Coast Demerara
Phone (592) 220-2843
Fax (592) 220-4481/220-2843
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.